The production film team is responsible for getting and organizing film teams and resources together to accomplish the production goal. The production film team is usually not considered to be a film team as such, but rather as a collection of functional units and includes the producers and executive producers of the film and workers of the production office, such as the production manager, the production coordinator, and their assistants, the different assistant directors, the accounting staff, and often the manager of the locations and their assistants.
A PRODUCER oversees the film’s production and organizing teams of people to help complete tasks such as casting and crew recruiting. Depending on the size of a production, there may be several different producers on a film who may take a role in the development, financing, or production.
EXECUTIVE PRODUCER plays a financial or creative role in ensuring that the project goes into production.
THE LINE PRODUCER is accountable for managing the production budget. The title is related to the concept that they’re the one that is “on the line” regularly, and accountable for lining up the resources required.
THE PRODUCTION MANAGER supervises the physical aspects of the production (not the artistic aspects) together with personnel, technology, budget, and scheduling. It’s the production manager’s responsibility to make certain the filming stays on schedule and within its budget. The PM conjointly helps manage the day-after-day budget by managing operational prices like salaries, production prices, and everyday instrumentation rental prices. The PM typically works under the oversight of a line producer and directly supervises the production coordinator.
THE ASSISTANT PRODUCTION manager is that the assistant to the production manager.
THE PRODUCTION COORDINATOR is accountable for organizing and hiring crew, dealt with equipment, and booking talent. The production coordinator manages production assistants.
PRODUCTION ASSISTANTS, spoken as PAs, assist within the production workplace or in varied film teams with general tasks, like aiding the primary assistant director with set operations.
THE UNIT MANAGER fulfills a similar role as the production manager except for secondary “unit” shooting. In some purposeful structures, the unit manager subsumes the role of the transport coordinator.
PRODUCTION ACCOUNTANTS manage the money and make sure the production comes in on budget and everybody gets paid. Production accountants are typically assisted by assistant accountants, generally referred to as clerks, responsible for assets, accounts collectible, and payroll.
SOCIAL PUBLICIST liaises between film production and the media. They produce press releases, unitedly with the producers, and work with the unit still photographer.
ENTERTAINMENT LAWYERS hash out contracts, clear licensing rights for any property employed in the film, get tax credits from local governments, and take care of immigration work once forged or crew cross international borders to shoot on location.
Casting and Directing
THE CASTING DIRECTOR is responsible for selecting actors that will make the project successful. They will do this by doing interviews or auditions. From there they will choose the actors which they feel that fill the characteristics needed for the role.
THE CAST PA assists the actors of the film. This sometimes involves personal and technical requests that may be an extremely sensitive and personal or common domain or information.
FILM DIRECTORS usually have ultimate control and responsibilities to make a film as powerful, entertaining, and effective as possible, therefore the film director is the most important member of the team. Directors work alongside all members of the film production team. The direct actors and ask the crew to do things in order to bring a vision to the screen.
The first assistant director (1st AD) assists the assembly manager and director. Any first AD aims to make sure the film comes in on schedule, whereas maintaining a secure operational setting during which the director, principal artists (actors), and crew are often centered on their work. They superintend the daily management of the forged and crew planning, equipment, script, and set. A first AD may be responsible for leading background action for major shots or a whole lot of comparatively minor shots, at the director’s discretion.
THE SECOND ASSISTANT DIRECTOR (2ND AD) is that the assistant of the first AD and helps perform those tasks delegated to the first AD. The second AD may direct background action and extras.
Scriptwriter and Supervisor
THE SCREENWRITER writes screenplays. In TV screenwriters tend to have more control of how their vision will be executed and often are on the set in order to make changes and communicate a vision.
SCRIPT SUPERVISOR also called the continuity person, keeps track of what components of the script are recorded and makes notes of any deviations between what was recorded and what appeared within the script. They create notes on each shot, and keep track of props, blocking, and different details to make sure continuity between shots and scenes. The script supervisor is additionally answerable for providing the “official” scene numbers and takes numbers to the second camera assistant (clapper loader in some countries) for the slate, and the sound mixer. All of this data is then relayed to the editor daily once shooting has wrapped within the variety of copies manufactured from each the script supervisor’s notes yet as their matching script pages.
THE DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY (sometimes shortened to DP or DoP) or Cinematographer in Europe, is responsible for the planning of the “frame” of the motion picture shots, therefore the name “photography”. They’re the chief of the camera and lighting crew of the film. The DP makes choices on lighting and framing of shots in conjunction with the film’s director. Typically, the director tells the DP, however, they require a shot to look, and the DP chooses the proper lens, filter, lighting, and composition to realize the specified aesthetic impact. The DP is that the senior artistic crew member after the director.
CAMERA OPERATOR uses the camera in the direction of the director of photography, or the film director to capture the scenes on film or video. In small productions, a camera operator or director of photography roles can be done by the same person.
THE FIRST ASSISTANT CAMERA, FIRST AC or focus puller, is to blame for keeping the camera focused because it is shooting, yet as building the camera at the start of the day and taking it apart at the top.
THE SECOND ASSISTANT CAMERA, 2D AC or clapper loader, operates the film equipment normally named within the U.S as a “slate” at the start of every. The 2d AC oversees the organization of camera equipment and transportation of it from one shooting location to another.
CAMERA PRODUCTION ASSISTANT OR THE CAMERA PA, camera intern, or camera trainee, assists the crew, whereas learning the trade of the camera assistant, operator, or camera operator.
A STEADICAM OPERATOR has somebody accomplished at operative a Steadicam (trademark for a camera stabilization rig). This person is sometimes one of the camera operators on the assembly.
Lighting and Grip
THE GAFFER is the head of the lighting film team who creates the lighting plan for a production to address how the lighting will be set. Typically, the gaffer is attributable as a chief lighting technician.
THE BEST BOY / BEST BABE (LIGHTING) is the assistant to the gaffer. There are responsible for managing the l truck, rentals, manpower, and power supply.
LIGHTING TECHNICIAN / ELECTRICS also referred to as electrics or lamp operators. They are set up light equipment and power distribution on the set.
THE KEY GRIP is that the chief grip on a grips team. The key grip works with the director of photography to assist created the set and to attain correct lighting and blocking. They’re conjointly accustomed maneuver the cameras around the set.
GRIPS are trained in lighting and rigging technicians. Their main responsibility is to work closely with the electrical film team to place within the non-electrical elements of lighting set-ups needed for a shot, like flags, overheads, and bounces. On the sound stage, they move and change major set items once one thing must be enraptured to urge a camera into position.
THE BEST BOY / BEST BABE (GRIP) is the chief assistant to the key grip. They’re conjointly accountable for organizing the grip truck throughout the day.
DOLLY GRIP is answerable for operation the camera dollies and camera cranes. They place, level, and move the dolly track, then push and pull the dolly, and frequently assist a cameraman and camera assistant.
THE PRODUCTION SOUND MIXER (OR SOUND RECORDIST) is the head of the operation of the audio mixer and recorder(s) that receive feeds from the microphones on set. It’s their responsibility to deploy their team to capture the sound for every shot, choose that microphones are going to be used for every setup, combine audio from all of the microphones in the time into a “mix track” which will be used whereas viewing rushes and through the edit, and to keep up logs of audio-related problems for post-production. The sound mixer is considered a movie team head and is so completely accountable for all aspects of production sound.
THE BOOM OPERATOR, 1ST ASSISTANT SOUND OR “1ST AS”, is responsible for utilizing microphones on the tip of boom poles. It’s conjointly their responsibility to relay data from the “floor” back to the production sound mixer.
THE SECOND ASSISTANT SOUND, OR “2ND AS”, is that the assistant to the boom operator and is accountable for moving and making ready sound instrumentality to be used around the set whereas the boom op watches rehearsals and prepares for ensuing shot. The role is usually informally called a “cable wrangler” or “cable boy”.
Art film team usually incorporates many sub-teams: the film art director, designers, and draftsmen; set decorator; props, construction and scenic, and camera.
Art, Scenic, Props
THE PRODUCTION DESIGNER is accountable for making the visual look of the film – settings, costumes, character makeup; all taken as a unit. the assembly designer works closely with the director and therefore the director of photography to attain the design of the film.
THE ART DIRECTOR reports to the production designer and more directly oversees artists and craftspeople, like the set designers, graphic artists, and illustrators. The art director works closely with the development coordinator and key scenic artist to manage the aesthetic and textural details of sets as they’re completed. Typically, the stage director oversees the budget and schedule of the general art film team. On large-budget productions with various sets and several other art directors, one can be attributable as a superintendence art director or senior art director.
ASSISTANT ART DIRECTOR. The first, second and third assistant stage directors perform the directions of the art director. Their work typically involves mensuration locations and assembling different pertinent info for the assembly designer,
THE SET DESIGNER is that the draftsman, typically an associate designer, who realizes the structures or interior areas entailed by the production designer.
Illustrator draws or paints visual representations of the styles to speak the concepts fanciful by the assembly designer. Illustrators area unit is typically attributable to idea artists.
GRAPHIC ARTIST is accountable for the planning and creation of all graphic parts, together with signs, billboards, posters, logos, nameplates, and automotive-wrapping — that area unit created specifically for the film.
THE SET DECORATOR is responsible for the decorating of a movie set, which incorporates the furnishings and every one the opposite objects that may be seen within the film. They work closely with the production designer and coordinate with the art director.
THE BUYER works with, and reports to, the set decorator.
THE LEADMAN (OR LEADPERSON) is that the foreman of the set dressing crew, typically spoken because of the swing team. They conjointly assist the set decorator.
THE SET DRESSERS apply and take away the “dressing”; i.e., furniture, drapery, carpets, wall signs, vinyl decals — everything one would notice in a very location.
THE PROPERTY MAN OR MISTRESS is responsible for finding and managing all the props that seem within the film.
THE ASSISTANT PROPMASTER usually is that the person running the set and responsible for operating directly with the actors, director, and on set crew.
THE WEAPONS MASTER, OR ARMORER, could be a specialized prop technician who deals with firearms. In most jurisdictions, this needs special coaching and licenses.
THE COSTUME DESIGNER is accountable for all the covering and costumes were worn by all the actors that seem on the screen. They’re accountable for planning, and organizing the development of the clothes right down to the material, colors, and sizes. The fashion designer works closely with the director to know and interpret “character”.
THE COSTUME SUPERVISOR works closely with the designer. They supervise the development or sourcing of clothes, hiring and firing of support employees, budget, paperwork, and film team provision. it’s conjointly referred to as the wardrobe supervisor, though this term is employed less and fewer.
THE KEY FASHION DESIGNER is used on larger productions to manage the set costumers and to handle the star’s wardrobe desires.
THE COSTUME STANDBY watches the standard and continuity of the actor’s and actresses’ costumes before and through takes. She or he will assist the actors and actresses with dressing.
A COSTUME TECHNICIAN who fits or tailors’ costumes, typically onset. They could even be referred to as fitter, seamstress, or tailor. Some celebrity actors have favorite cutters, and bigger productions could rent many and have them on set at an equivalent time, notably in the amount film comes that may have difficult or pricey extras wardrobe.
THE GREENSMAN OR GREENSPERSON could be a specialized set dresser coping with the inventive arrangement or landscape style of material, typically real and typically artificial, and typically a mix of each.
THE CONSTRUCTION COORDINATOR oversees the development of all the sets. The coordinator orders materials schedule the work and supervise the customarily sizeable construction crew of carpenters, painters, and laborers.
THE HEAD CARPENTER is the foreman of a gang of carpenters and laborers.
THE PROPMAKER (PROP FABRICATOR) builds the props that the area unit used for the film.
THE KEY SCENIC ARTIST (scenic charge) is accountable for the surface treatments of the sets. This includes special paint treatments like aging and gilt, additionally as simulating the looks of wood, stone, brick, metal, stained glass–anything entailed by the assembly designer. The key scene painter supervises the crew of painters and is commonly a master craftsperson.
THE HEAD OF THE PLASTERING film team is accountable for managing fibrous plasterers, who create things using mold and casting specialists.
LOCATION MANAGER oversees the location’s film team and its employees, generally reporting on to the production manager or assistant director (or even director or executive producer). the situation manager is answerable for final clearing (or guaranteeing permission to use) a location for filming and should typically assist production and finance film teams in maintaining budget management concerning actual location/permit fees as well as labor costs to production for the locations film team at large.
ASSISTANT LOCATION MANAGER works with the location manager and the numerous film teams in composition technical scouts for the essential employees (grips, electric, camera, etc.) to examine choices that the location manager has hand-picked for filming. The assistant location manager is onset throughout the filming process to administrate the operation, whereas the location manager continues pre-production from elsewhere (generally an office) on the coming locations.
LOCATION SCOUT does abundant actual research, footwork, and photography to document location prospects. Typically, the location manager can do some scouting themselves
LOCATION ASSISTANT is hired by the location manager to get on set before, during, and once the filming method. General responsibilities embody inward initial at the situation to permit the set dressers into the set for preparation; maintaining the cleanliness of the situation areas throughout filming; fielding complaints from neighbors.
LOCATION PRODUCTION ASSISTANT position exists typically on larger budget productions. the situation PA is that the assistant who is rarely on set, however, instead is usually prepping a location or “wrapping” a location; that’s, once a location requires several days of setup and breakdown preceding and following the day(s) of filming.
Makeup and SFX Makeup
THE KEY MAKEUP ARTIST answers to the director and production designer. They’re accountable for designing makeup styles for all leading and supporting solid. Their film team includes all cosmetic makeup, body makeup. The key makeup artist can commonly execute particularly difficult or vital makeup processes that area unit to be featured on camera.
THE MAKE-UP SUPERVISOR could be a supporting position that commonly reports to the key makeup artist to help in running the makeup film team. Make-up supervisors generally handle production matters and customarily serve the wants of senior artists. Makeup supervisors seldom do makeup themselves. Their duties will embrace keeping a record of makeup continuity, handing the programming of makeup groups, and providing for the final desires of the makeup film team.
SPECIAL MAKE-UP EFFECTS ARTIST (SFX MAKEUP), works with live models or structures, applying make-up effects or cosmetics.
MAKE-UP ARTISTS work with makeup, hair, and tricks to form the characters search for anyone showing on the screen. They assist and report back to the key make-up artist.
THE KEY HAIR is that the film team head that answers to the director and production designer. The key hair can commonly style and elegance the hair of lead actors.
THE HAIRSTYLIST is accountable for maintaining and styling the hair, together with wigs and extensions, of anyone showing on the screen. They assist and report back to the key hair.
The special effects film team oversees the mechanical effects (also referred to as physical or sensible effects) that make optical illusions throughout live-action shooting. it’s to not be confused with the visual effects film team, that adds photographic effects throughout photography to be altered later throughout video redaction within the post-production method.
SFX and VFX
Visual effects normally visit post-production alterations of the film’s pictures. The onset VFX crew works to organize shots and plates for future visual effects. This could embrace, adding pursuit markers, taking and inquiring for reference plates, and serving to the director to perceive the restrictions and easy bound shots that may affect the long run post-production. A VFX crew can even work aboard the computer graphics, film team for any on-site optical effects that require physical illustration throughout filming (on camera).
THE VISUAL EFFECTS PRODUCER works with the visual effects supervisor to interrupt down the script into storyboards and advises the director on however she or he ought to approach the scenes. along they verify that sequences area unit to be shot as live-action parts, which might work well in miniature, and that (if any) ought to be computer-generated.
VISUAL EFFECTS ARTISTIC DIRECTOR or VFX directors are like production designers, except they direct and supervise the artistic facet of the film’s visual effects. The position is especially in demand for films with large amounts of computer-generated images and scenes.
THE VISUAL EFFECTS SUPERVISOR runs the VFX crew, operating with production and also the film’s director to attain the required in-camera optical effects of the film.
THE VISUAL EFFECTS EDITOR INCORPORATES VISUAL EFFECTS into the present cuts of live-action sequences, manufacturing multiple versions of every shot. Altered scene area unit, then evaluated by the visual effects supervisor and inventive director for aesthetic and technical direction, and by the producers for review and final piece of writing.
A COMPOSITOR may be a visual effects creator answerable for composting pictures from totally different sources like video, film, computer-generated 3D imagination, 2nd animations, matte paintings, pictures, and text.
MATTE PAINTERS draw associated paint entire sets or extend parts of an existing set.
THE SPECIAL EFFECTS SUPERVISOR instructs the computer graphics crew on a way to style moving set parts and props that may safely break, explode, burn, collapse, and give way while not destroying the film set. She or he’s conjointly answerable for reproducing climatic conditions and alternative on-camera magic.
SPECIAL EFFECTS ASSISTANT OR THE SFX ASSISTANTS performs the directions of the computer graphics supervisor, building set items like a breakaway piece of furniture and cities in miniature, lighting pyrotechnics, and putting in place rigging instrumentality for stunts.
STUNT COORDINATOR, where the film needs a stunt and involves the utilization of stunt performers, the stunt organizer can organize the casting and performance of the stunt, operating closely with the director and the first AD.
Film Score and Sound
THE SOUND DESIGNER, or management sound editor, oversees the post-production sound of a moving-picture show. This could involve a nice artistic license, and alternative times it’s going to merely mean operating with the director and editor to balance the sound to their feeling.
THE DIALOGUE EDITOR is answerable for collecting and a piece of writing all the dialog within the sound recording.
THE SOUND EDITOR is answerable for collecting and a piece of writing all the sound effects within the sound recording.
THE RE-RECORDING MIXER balances all the sounds ready by the dialogue, music, and effects editors, and finalizes the film’s audio track.
THE MUSIC SUPERVISOR works with the musician, mixers, and editors to form and integrate the film’s music. In Hollywood, a music supervisor’s primary responsibility is to act as a liaison between the film production and the recording labels, negotiating the utilization of rights for all supply music employed in a movie.
THE COMPOSER is answerable for writing the sheet music for a movie.
THE FOLEY CREATOR is the one that creates the post-sync sound effects for a movie. These sound effects can be body movements, footsteps, or object manipulations.
A CONDUCTOR is meant to be knowledgeable of special synchronization procedures to conduct the score to the associate orchestra.
A SCORE’S RECORDER is somebody who records the film score.
A SCORE’S MIXER is somebody who mixes the film score.
A MUSIC PREPARER is somebody who prepares out the score for orchestra performers and who copies out the music.
A MUSIC EDITOR is somebody who edits the film score and works with the musician to create positive it goes with the film.
ADDITIONAL ORCHESTRATION individuals work with the conductor and adapter and edit the film score.
The editorial, film team completes the film.
THE FILM EDITOR is that the artistic head of the post-production film team and is answerable for collecting the image into a cohesive emended story, with the assistance of the director. They’re primarily answerable for choosing performances of the actors with the director, adjusting the tempo, pace, and structure of the ultimate emended film.
POST-PRODUCTION supervisors film team answerable for the post-production, throughout that they maintain clarity of data and smart channels of communication between the producer, editor, management sound editor, the facilities corporations (such as film labs, CGI studios, and negative cutters), and also the production executives.
THE COLORIST uses digital tools in manipulating the image and has an important role in portraying the aesthetic of a movie.
The Editor works with the director to put a film together. The Editor usually has a team of people to help do this, as it takes hours to complete single handily.